7th grade Social Studies vocabulary answers

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Unit 1

Geography Handbook

Section 1

  1. globe: spherical model of Earth.
  2. hemisphere: one-half of the globe; Northern/Southern; Eastern/Western.
  3. latitude: location north or south of the Equator, measured by imaginary lines numbered in degrees north or south.
  4. longitude: location east or west of the Prime Meridian, measured by imaginary lines numbered in degrees east or west.
  5. grid system: network of imaginary lines on the earth's surface, formed by the crisscrossing patterns of the lines of latitude and longitude.
  6. absolute location: exact position of a place on the earth's surface.
  7. great circle route: ship or airplane route following a great circle; shortest distance between 2 points on the earth.
  8. projection: in mapmaking, a way of drawing the round Earth on a flat surface. 

Section 2

  1. geographic information systems (GIS): special software that helps geographers gather and use information about a place.
  2. map key: code that explains the lines, symbols, and colors used on a map.
  3. cardinal directions: basic directions on the earth: north, south, east, west.
  4. compass rose: device drawn on maps to show the directions.
  5. intermediate directions: any direction between the cardinal directions, such as southeast or northwest.
  6. scale bar: on a map, a divided line showing the map scale, usually in miles or kilometers.
  7. scale: relationship between distance on a map and actual distance on the earth. 
  8. relief: differences in height in a landscape; how flat or rugged the surface is.
  9. elevation: height above sea level.
  10. contour line: line connecting all points at the same elevation on a contour map.

Section 3

  1. axis: imaginary line that runs through the earth's center between the North and South pole.
  2. bar graph: graph in which vertical or horizontal bars represent quantities.
  3. line graph: graph in which one or more lines represent changing quantities over time.
  4. circle graph: round or pie-shaped graph showing how a whole is divided.
  5. pictograph: graph in which small symbols represent quantities.
  6. climograph: combination bar and line graph giving information about temperature and precipitation.
  7. chart: graphic way of presenting information clearly.
  8. diagram: drawing that shows steps in a process or parts of an object.
  9. elevation profile: cutaway diagram showing changes in elevation of land.

Geographic Dictionary

  1. absolute location: exact position of a place on the earth's surface.
  2. basin: area of land drained by a given river and its branches; area of land surrounded by lands of higher elevations.
  3. bay: part of a large body of water that extends into a shoreline; generally smaller than a gulf.
  4. canyon: deep and narrow valley with steep walls.
  5. cape: point of land that extends into a river, lake, or ocean.
  6. channel: wide strait or waterway between two landmasses that lie close to each other; deep part of a river or other waterway.
  7. cliff: steep, high wall of rock, earth, or ice.
  8. continent: one of the 7 largest landmasses on the earth.
  9. delta: flat, low0lying land built up from soil carried downstream by a river and deposited at its mouth.
  10. divide: stretch of high land that separates river systems.
  11. downstream: direction in which a river or stream flows from its source to its mouth.
  12. elevation: height of land above sea level.
  13. Equator: imaginary line that runs around the earth halfway between the North and South Poles; used as a starting point to measure degrees of latitude. 
  14. glacier: large, thick body of slowly moving ice.
  15. gulf: part of a large body of water that extends into a shoreline; generally larger and more deeply indented than a bay.
  16. harbor: a sheltered place along a shoreline where ships can anchor safely.
  17. highland: elevated land area such as a hill, mountain, or plateau.
  18. hill: elevated land with sloping sides and rounded summit; generally smaller than a mountain.
  19. island: land area, smaller than a continent, completely surrounded by water.
  20. isthmus: narrow stretch of land connecting 2 larger land areas.
  21. lake: a sizable inland body of water.
  22. latitude: distance north or south of the Equator, measured in degrees.
  23. longitude: distance east or west of Prime Meridian, measured in degrees.
  24. lowland: land, usually level, at a low elevation.
  25. map: drawing of the earth shown on a flat surface.
  26. meridian: one of many lines on the global grid running from the North Pole to the South Pole; used to measure degrees of longitude.
  27. mesa: broad, flat-topped landform with steep side; smaller than a plateau.
  28. mountain: land with steep sides that rises sharply  (1,000 ft. or more) from surrounding land; generally larger and more rugged than a hill.
  29. mountain peak: pointed top of a mountain.
  30. mountain range: a series of connected mountains.
  31. mouth: (of a river) place where a stream or river flows into a larger body of water.
  32. ocean: one of the 4 major bodies of salt water that surround the continents.
  33. ocean current: stream of either cold or warm water that moves in a definite direction through an ocean.
  34. parallel: one of many lines on the global grid that circles the earth north or south of the Equator; used to measure degrees of latitude.
  35. peninsula: body of land jutting into a lake or ocean, surrounded on 3 sides by water.
  36. physical feature: characteristic of a place occurring naturally, such as a landform, body of water, climate pattern, or resource.
  37. plain: area of level land, usually at low elevation and often covered with grasses.
  38. plateau: area of flat or rolling land at a high elevation, about 300-3,000 ft. high.
  39. Prime Meridian: line of the global grid running from the North Pole to the south Pole at Greenwich, England; starting point for measuring degrees of east and west longitude.
  40. relief: changes in elevation over a given area of land.
  41. river: large natural stream of water that runs through the land.
  42. sea: large body of water completely or partly surrounded by land.
  43. seacoast: land lying next to a sea or an ocean.
  44. sound: broad inland body of water, often between a coastline and one or more islands off the coast. 
  45. source: (of a river) place where a river or stream begins, often in highlands.
  46. strait: narrow stretch of water joining 2 larger bodies of water.
  47. tributary: small river or stream that flows into a large river or stream; a branch of the river.
  48. upstream: direction opposite the flow of a river; toward the source of a river or stream.
  49. valley: area of low land between hills or mountains.
  50. volcano: mountain created as liquid rock and ash erupt from inside the earth.

                                                            

  Unit 1

Chapter 1

Section 1

  1. geography: the study of the earth in all its variety.
  2. landform: individual features of the land.
  3. environment: natural surroundings.
  4. region: area that shares common characteristics.
  5. Global Positioning System (GPS): group of satellites that travels around the earth, which can be used to locate exact places on the earth.
  6. geographic information systems (GIS): special software that helps geographers gather and use information about a place. 

Section 2

  1. solar system: Earth, eight other planets, and thousands of smaller bodies that all revolve around the sun.
  2. orbit: path that a body in the solar system travels around the sun.
  3. atmosphere: layer of air surrounding the earth.
  4. axis: imaginary line that runs through the earth's center between the North and South poles.
  5. revolution: one complete orbit around the sun.
  6. leap year: year that has an extra day; occurs every 4th year.
  7. summer solstice: day with the most hours of sunlight and the fewest hours of darkness.
  8. winter solstice: day with the fewest hours of sunlight and the most hours of darkness.
  9. equinox: day when day and night are of equal length in both hemispheres.

Section 3

  1. core: center of the earth, formed of hot iron mixed with other metals.
  2. mantle: rock layer about 1,800 miles thick between the core and the crust.
  3. magma: hot melted rock that sometimes flows to the earth's surface in a volcanic eruption.
  4. crust: uppermost layer of the earth.
  5. continent: massive land area.
  6. plate tectonics: theory that the earth's crust is not an unbroken shell but consists of plates, or huge slabs of rock, that move.
  7. earthquake: violent and sudden movement of the earth's crust.
  8. tsunami: huge sea wave caused by an earthquake on the ocean floor.
  9. fault: crack in the earth's crust.
  10. weathering: process that breaks surface rocks into boulders, gravel, sand, and soil.
  11. erosion: process of moving weathered material on the earth's surface.
  12. glacier: giant slow-moving sheets of ice.

Section 4

  1. elevation: height above sea level.
  2. plain: low-lying stretch of flat or gently rolling land.
  3. plateau: flat land with higher elevation than a plain.
  4. isthmus: narrow piece of land that connects 2 larger pieces of land.
  5. peninsula: body of land jutting into a lake or ocean, surrounded on 3 sides by water.
  6. island: land area, smaller than a continent, completely surrounded by water.
  7. continental shelf: plateau off each coast of a continent that lies under the ocean and stretches for several miles. 
  8. trench: valley in the ocean floor.
  9. strait: narrow body of water between 2 pieces of land.
  10. channel: body of water wider than a strait between 2 pieces of land.
  11. delta: area formed from soil deposited by a river at its mouth.

Chapter 2

Section 1

  1. water vapor: water in the form of gas.
  2. water cycle: process in which water moves from the oceans to the air to the ground and finally back to the oceans.
  3. evaporation: process in which the sun's heat turns liquid water into water vapor.
  4. condensation: process in which air rises and cools, which makes the water vapor it holds change back into a liquid.
  5. precipitation: water that falls back to the earth as rain, snow, sleet, or hail.
  6. collection: process in the water cycle during which streams and rivers carry water back to the oceans.
  7. glacier: giant slow-moving sheets of ice.
  8. groundwater: water that fills tiny cracks and holes in the rock layers below the earth's surface.
  9. aquifer: underground rock layer so rich in water that water actually flows through it.

Section 2

  1. weather: unpredictable changes in the air that take place over a short period of time.
  2. climate: usual, predictable pattern of weather in an area over a long period of time.
  3. tropics: low-latitude region between the Topic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.
  4. monsoon: seasonal wind that blows over a continent for months at a a time.
  5. tornado: funnel-shaped windstorm that sometimes forms during a severer thunderstorm.
  6. hurricane: violent tropical storm with high winds and heavy rains.
  7. typhoon: name for hurricane in Asia.
  8. drought: long period of extreme dryness and water shortages.
  9. El Nino: combination of temperature, wind, and water effects in the Pacific Ocean that causes heavy rains in some areas and drought in others.
  10. La Nina: pattern of unusual weather in the Pacific Ocean that has the opposite effects of El Nino.
  11. current: moving streams of water in the world's oceans, which affect the climate of land areas.
  12. local wind: pattern of wind caused by landforms in a particular area.
  13. rain shadow: dry area on the inland side of coastal mountains.
  14. greenhouse effect: buildup of certain gases in the atmosphere, that like a greenhouse, hold more of the sun's warmth.
  15. rain forest: dense forest that receives high amounts of rain each year. 

Section 3

  1. canopy: umbrella-like covering formed by the tops of trees in a rain forest.
  2. savanna: broad grassland in the topics with few trees.
  3. marine west coast climate: weather pattern characterized by rainy and mild winters and cool summers.
  4. Mediterranean climate: weather pattern characterized by mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers.
  5. humid continental climate: weather pattern characterized by long, cold, and snowy winters and short, hot summers.
  6. sub arctic climate: weather pattern characterized by severely cold and bitter winters and short, cool summers.
  7. tundra: vast rolling treeless plain in high latitude climate in which only the  top few inches of ground thaw in summer.
  8. permafrost: permanently frozen lower layers of soil in the tundra and sub arctic regions.
  9. steppe: partly dry grassland, often found on the edges of a desert.
  10. timberline: elevation along mountains above which no trees grow.

Chapter 3

Section 1

  1. culture: way of life of a group of people who share similar beliefs and customs.
  2. ethnic group: people who share a common culture, language, or history.
  3. dialect: local form of a language that differ from the main language in pronunciation or the meaning of words.
  4. monarchy: from of government in which a king or queen inherits the right to rule a country.
  5. dictator: individual who take control of a government and rules the country as he or she wishes.
  6. democracy: form of government in which citizens choose the nation's leaders by voting for them.
  7. economic system: system that sets rules for how people decide what goods and services to produce and how they are exchanged.
  8. cultural diffusion: the process of spreading new knowledge and skills to other cultures.
  9. civilizations: highly developed cultures.
  10. culture region: area of the world that includes many different countries that all have cultural traits in common.

Section 2

  1. death rate: number of people out of every 1,000 who die in a year.
  2. birthrate: number of children born each year for every 1,000 people.
  3. famine: lack of food.
  4. population density: average number of people living in a square mile or square kilometer.
  5. urbanization: movement to cities.
  6. emigrate: to move to another country.
  7. refugee: person who flees to another country to escape persecution or disaster.

Section 3

  1. natural resource: product of the earth that people use to meet their needs.
  2. renewable resource: natural resource that cannot be used up or can fairly quickly be replace naturally or grown again.
  3. nonrenewable resource: natural resource such as metals or minerals that cannot be replaced.
  4. export: to trade goods to other countries. 
  5. import: to buy goods from another country.
  6. tariff: tax added to the value of goods that are imported.
  7. quota: number limit on how many items of a particular product can be imported from a particular country.
  8. free trade: taking down trade barriers so that goods flow freely among countries.
  9. developed country: country in which a great deal of manufacturing is carried out.
  10. developing country: country that is working toward industrialization.

Section 4

  1. desalinization: process used to make seawater drinkable.
  2. conservation: careful use of resources so they are not wasted.
  3. pesticide: powerful chemicals that kill crop-destroying insects.
  4. ecosystem: place where the plants and animals are dependent upon one another and their surroundings for survival.
  5. crop rotation: varying what is planted in a field to avoid using up all the minerals in the soil.
  6. irrigation: farming practice followed in dry areas to collect water ad bring it to crops.
  7. erosion: process of moving weathered material on the earth's surface.
  8. deforestation: widespread cutting of forests.
  9. acid rain: rain containing high amounts of chemical pollutants.

                                                       

Unit 2

Chapter 4

Section 1

  1. contiguous: areas that are joined together inside a common boundary.
  2. megalopolis: pattern of heavy urban settlement over a large area.
  3. coral reef: structure at or near the water's surface formed by the skeletons of small sea animals.

Section 2

  1. free enterprise system: economic system in which people start and run businesses with limited government intervention.
  2. service industry: business that provides services to people instead of producing goods.
  3. navigable: describes a body of water wide and deep enough to allow the passage of ships.
  4. fossil fuels: coal, oil, or natural gas.
  5. acid rain: rain containing high amounts of chemical pollutants.
  6. landfill: area where trash companies dump the waste they collect.
  7. recycling: reusing materials instead of throwing them out.
  8. free trade: taking down trade barriers so that goods flow freely among countries.

Section 3

  1. colony: overseas territory or settlement tied to a parent country.
  2. democracy: form of government in which citizens choose the nation's leaders by voting for them.
  3. federal republic: government divided between national and state powers.
  4. secede: to withdraw from a national government.
  5. immigrant: person who moves to a new country to make a permanent home.
  6. ethnic group: people who share a common culture, language, or history.
  7. rural: area in the countryside.
  8. urban: area in the city.
  9. suburbs: smaller communities that surround a city.
  10. national park: area set aside to protect wilderness and wildlife and for recreation.

Chapter 5

Section 1

  1. province: regional political division similar to states.
  2. glacier: giant slow-moving sheets of ice.
  3. peninsula: body of land jutting into a lake or ocean, surrounded on 3 sides by water.
  4. tundra: vast rolling treeless plain in high latitude climates in which only the top few inches of ground thaw in summer.
  5. prairie: rolling,, inland grassy area with very fertile soil.
  6. cordillera: group of mountain ranges that run side by side.

Section 2

  1. service industry: business that provides services to people instead of producing goods.
  2. newsprint: type of paper used for printing newspapers.
  3. secede: to withdraw from a national government.
  4. acid rain: rain containing high amounts of chemical pollutants.

Section 3

  1. colony: overseas territory or settlement tied to a parent country.
  2. dominion: self-governing nation that accepts the British monarch as head of state.
  3. parliamentary democracy: government in which voters elect representatives to a law-making body, which chooses a prime minister
  4. prime minister: official who heads the government in a parliamentary democracy.
  5. bilingual: referring to a country that has 2 official languages.

                                                       

Unit 3

Chapter 6

Section 1

  1. land bridge: narrow strip of land that joins 2 larger landmasses.
  2. peninsula: body of land jutting into a lake or ocean, surrounded on 3 sides by water.
  3. latitude: distance north or south of the Equator, measured in degrees.
  4. longitude: distance east or west of Prime Meridian, measured in degrees.
  5. altitude: height above sea level.
  6. hurricane: violent tropical storm with high winds and heavy rains.
  7. vaquero: cowhand.
  8. maquiladora: factory that assembles parts made in other countries.
  9. subsistence farm: small plot where a farmer grows only enough food to feed his own family.
  10. plantation: large farm that grows a single crop for sale.

Section 2

  1. hieroglyphics: form of writing that uses signs and symbols.
  2. mural: wall painting.
  3. colony: overseas territory or settlement tied to a parent country.
  4. hacienda: large ranch.
  5. mesitizo: person with mixed Spanish and Native American or African background.
  6. federal republic: government divided between national and state powers.

Section 3

  1. plaza: public square.
  2. adobe: sun-dried clay bricks.
  3. industrialize: to change an economy to rely more on manufacturing and less on farming.
  4. service industry: business that provides services to people instead of producing goods.
  5. migrant worker: person who travels from place to place when extra help is needed to plant or harvest crops.
  6. smog: thick haze of fog and chemicals.

Chapter 7

Section 1

  1. isthmus: narrow stretch of land connecting 2 larger land areas.
  2. hurricane: violent tropical storm with high winds and heavy rains.
  3. plantation: large farm that grows a single crop for sale.
  4. subsistence farm: small plot where a farmer grows only enough food to feed his own family.
  5. canopy: umbrella-like covering formed by the tops of trees in a rain forest.
  6. eco-tourist: person who travels to another country to view its natural wonders.
  7. literacy rate: percentage of people who can read and write.
  8. republic: strong national government headed by elected leaders.
  9. parliamentary democracy: government in which voters elect representatives to a law-making body, which chooses a prime minister

Section 2

  1. archipelago: group of islands.
  2. bauxite: mineral used to make aluminum.
  3. colony: overseas territory or settlement tied to a parent country.
  4. communist state: country whose government has strong control over the economy and society as a whole.
  5. cooperative: farm owned and operated by the government. 
  6. embargo: order that restricts or prohibits trade with another country.
  7. free trade zone: area where people can buy goods from other countries without paying extra taxes.
  8. commonwealth: partly self-governing territory.

Chapter 8

Section 1

  1. basin: area of land drained by a given river and its branches; area of land surrounded by lands of higher elevations.
  2. selva: tropical rain forests in Brazil.
  3. escarpment: steep cliff between higher and lower land.
  4. favela: slum area.
  5. inflation: overall increase in the price of goods across the entire economy.
  6. republic: strong national government headed by elected leaders.

Section 2

  1. tannin: substance used in processing leather.
  2. estancia: ranch.
  3. gaucho: cowhand.

Section 3

  1. llanos: grassy plains.
  2. hydroelectric power: electricity generated by flowing water.
  3. altitude: height above sea level.
  4. caudillo: military ruler.

Section 4

  1. welfare state: country that uses tax money to support people who are sick, needy, jobless, or retired.
  2. landlocked: country with no land bordering a sea or ocean.

Chapter 9

Section 1

  1. cordillera: group of mountain ranges that run side by side.
  2. llanos: grassy plains.
  3. cash crop: product grown to be sold for export.
  4. mesitizo: person with mixed Spanish and Native American or African background.
  5. republic: strong national government headed by elected leaders.
  6. campesino: Colombian farmer.

Section 2

  1. altiplano: large highland plateau.
  2. navigable: describes a body of water wide and deep enough to allow the passage of ships.
  3. foothill: low hill at the base of a mountain.
  4. subsistence farm: small plot where a farmer grows only enough food to feed his own family.
  5. empire: group of lands under one ruler.

Section 3

  1. landlocked: country with no land bordering a sea or ocean.
  2. sodium nitrate: chemical used in fertilizer and explosives.

                                                       

Unit 4

Chapter 10

Section 1

  1. moor: treeless, windy highland area with damp ground.
  2. loch: narrow bay that reaches far inland.
  3. currency: form of money.
  4. parliamentary democracy: government in which voters elect representatives to a law-making body, which chooses a prime minister
  5. constitutional monarchy: government in which a king or queen is the official head of state, but elected officials run the government.
  6. devolution: transfer of certain powers from the central government to regional governments.

Section 2

  1. peat: wet ground with decaying plants that can be dried and used for fuel. 
  2. bog: low swampy land.

Section 3

  1. navigable: describes a body of water wide and deep enough to allow the passage of ships.
  2. republic: strong national government headed by elected leaders.

Section 4

  1. autobahn: superhighway.
  2. Holocaust: systematic murder of more than 6 million European Jews by Adolf Hitler and his followers during World War II.
  3. communist state: country whose government has strong control over the economy and society as a whole.
  4. federal republic: government divided between national and state powers.
  5. reunification: bringing together the 2 parts of Germany under 1 government.
  6. infrastructure: transportation and communication networks on which an economy depends.
  7. neutrality: refusing to take sides in disagreements and wars between countries.

Section 5

  1. polder: area of land reclaimed from the sea.
  2. multinational company: firm that does business in several countries.
  3. multilingual: able to speak several languages.

Chapter 11

Section 1

  1. plateau: area of flat or rolling land at a high elevation, about 300-3,000 ft. high.
  2. dry farming: method in which the land is left unplanted every few years so that it can store moisture.
  3. navigable: describes a body of water wide and deep enough to allow the passage of ships.
  4. colony: overseas territory or settlement tied to a parent country.
  5. parliamentary republic: government in which voters elect representatives to a law-making body, which chooses a prime minister
  6. dialect: local form of a language that differ from the main language in pronunciation or the meaning of words.

Section 2

  1. sirocco: hot, dry winds that blow across Italy from North America.
  2. city-state: city and its surrounding country-side.
  3. Renaissance: period of great achievement in art and learning that began in Itlay in the 1300's and spread throughout Europe.
  4. coalition government: government in which 2 or more political parties work together to run a country.
  5. pope: head of the Roman Catholic Church.

Section 3

  1. mainland: the major part of a country.
  2. elevation: height above sea level.
  3. suburb: smaller community that surrounds a city.

Chapter 12

Section 1

  1. fjord: steep-sided valley cut into mountains by the action of glaciers.
  2. skerry: rocky island.
  3. emigrate: to move to another country.
  4. welfare state: country that uses tax money to support people who are sick, needy, jobless, or retired.
  5. heavy industry: manufactured goods such as machinery, mining equipment, and steel.
  6. nationalism: desire of a territory or colony to become and independent nation.
  7. sauna: wooden room heated by water sizzling on hot stones.

Section 2

  1. archipelago: group of islands.
  2. moor: treeless, windy highland area with damp ground. 
  3. geyser: spring of water heated by molten rock inside the earth so that, from time to time, it shoots hot water into the air.
  4. geothermal energy: electricity produced by natural underground sources of steam.
  5. fault line: break in the earth's crust along which movement occurs.
  6. saga: long story.

Chapter 13

Section 1

  1. bog: low swampy land.
  2. communist state: country whose government has strong control over the economy and society as a whole.
  3. acid rain: rain containing high amounts of chemical pollutants.
  4. republic: strong national government headed by elected leaders.
  5. pope: head of the Roman Catholic Church.

Section 2

  1. oil shale: rock that contains oil.
  2. peat: wet ground with decaying plants that can be dried and used for fuel. 

Section 3

  1. landlocked: country with no land bordering a sea or ocean.
  2. bauxite: mineral used to make aluminum.
  3. nomad: people who move from place to place with herds of animals.
  4. spa: resort that  has hot mineral springs that people bathe in to regain their health.
  5. nature preserve: protected areas for plants and animals.
  6. privatize: to transfer the ownership of factories from the government to individual citizens.

Section 4

  1. consumer goods: household products, clothing, and other goods people buy to use for themselves.
  2. ethnic cleansing: forcing people from a different ethnic group to leave their home.
  3. refugee: person who flees to another country to escape persecution or disaster.
  4. mosque: place of worship for followers of Isalm.

Section 5

  1. steppe: partly dry grassland often found on the edges of a desert.
  2. potash: type of mineral salt that is often used in fertilizers.

                                                       

Unit 5

Chapter 14

Section 1

  1. steppe: partly dry grassland often found on the edges of a desert.
  2. peninsula: body of land jutting into a lake or ocean, surrounded on 3 sides by water.
  3. taiga: huge forests of evergreen trees that grow in sub arctic regions.
  4. tundra: vast rolling treeless plain in high latitude climates in which only the top few inches of ground thaw in summer.
  5. permafrost: permanently frozen lower layers of soil in the tundra and sub arctic regions.

Section 2

  1. heavy industry: manufactured goods such as machinery, mining equipment, and steel.
  2. light industry: making of such goods as clothing, shoes, furniture, and household products.
  3. consumer goods: household products, clothing, and other goods people buy to use for themselves. 
  4. hydroelectric power: electricity generated by flowing water.
  5. bauxite: mineral used to make aluminum.

Chapter 15

Section 1

  1. czar: name for emperor in Russia's past.
  2. serf: farm laborer who could be bought and sold along with the land.
  3. industrialize:  to change an economy to rely more on manufacturing and less on farming.
  4. communist state: country whose government has strong control over the economy and society as a whole.
  5. cold war: period between the late 1940's and late 1980's when the US and Soviet Union competed for world influence without actually fighting each other.
  6. ethnic group: people who share a common culture, language, or history.

Section 2

  1. free enterprise system: economic system in which people start and run businesses with limited government intervention.
  2. nuclear energy: power made by creating a controlled atomic reaction.
  3. life expectancy: the number of years that an average person is expected to live.
  4. democracy: form of government in which citizens choose the nation's leaders by voting for them.
  5. federal republic: government divided between national and state powers.
  6. urban: area in the city.
  7. suburb: smaller community that surrounds a city.
  8. rural: area in the countryside.

                                                       

Unit 6

Chapter 16

Section 1

  1. delta: area formed from soil deposited by a river at its mouth.
  2. silt: small particles of rich soil.
  3. oasis: green area in a desert fed by underground water.
  4. phosphate: mineral salt used in fertilizers.
  5. hieroglyphics: form of writing that uses signs and symbols.
  6. republic: strong national government headed by elected leaders.
  7. fellahin: farmers in Egypt who live in villages and work on small plots of land that they rent from landowners.
  8. bazaar: marketplace.
  9. mosque: place of worship for followers of Islam.

Section 2

  1. aquifer: underground rock layer so rich in water that water actually flows through it.
  2. dictatorship: government under the control of one all-powerful leader.
  3. erg: huge area of shifting sand dunes in the Sahara.
  4. civil war: fight among different groups within a country.
  5. secular: nonreligious.
  6. casbah: older section of Algerian cities.
  7. constitutional monarchy: government in which a king or queen is the official head of state, but elected officials run the government.

Chapter 17

Section 1

  1. mosque: place of worship for followers of Islam.
  2. migrate: to move from one place to another.
  3. secular: nonreligious.

Section 2

  1. kibbutz: settlement in Israel where the people share property and produce goods.
  2. moshav: settlement in Israel where people share property but also own some private property.
  3. Diaspora: collective name for scattered Jewish settlements around the world.
  4. Holocaust: systematic murder of more than 6 million European Jews by Adolf Hitler and his followers during World War II.
  5. monotheism: belief in one God.

Section 3

  1. Bedouins: nomadic desert peoples of Southwest Asia.
  2. civil war: fight among different groups within a country.
  3. constitutional monarchy: government in which a king or queen is the official head of state, but elected officials run the government.

Section 4

  1. wadi: dry riverbed filled by rainwater from rare downpours.
  2. oasis: green area in a desert fed by underground water.
  3. desalinization: process used to make seawater drinkable.
  4. hajj: religious journey to Makkah that Muslims are expected to make at least once during their lifetime if they are able to do so.

Section 5

  1. alluvial plain: area that is built up by rich fertile soil left by river floods.
  2. embargo: order that restricts or prohibits trade with another country.
  3. shah: title given to kings who ruled Iran.
  4. Islamic republic: government run by Muslim religious leaders.

Chapter 18

Section 1

  1. fault: crack in the earth's crust.
  2. landlocked: country with no land bordering a sea or ocean.
  3. enclave: small territory entirely surrounded by a larger territory.
  4. cash crop: product grown to be sold for export.

Section 2

  1. steppe: partly dry grassland often found on the edges of a desert.
  2. delta: area formed from soil deposited by a river at its mouth.
  3. nomad: people who move from place to place with herds of animals.
  4. elevation: height above sea level.
  5. clan: group of people related to one another.
  6. bilingual: referring to a country that has 2 official languages.
  7. oasis: green area in a desert fed by underground water.

                                                       

Unit 7

Chapter 19

Section 1

  1. mangrove: tropical tree with roots that extend both above and beneath the water.
  2. savanna: broad grassland in the tropics with few trees.
  3. harmattan: dry, dusty wind that blows south from the Sahara.
  4. subsistence farm: small plot where a farmer grows only enough food to feed his own family.
  5. cacao: tropical tree whose seeds are used to make chocolate and cocoa.
  6. compound: group of houses surrounded by walls.
  7. civil war: fight among different groups within a country.

Section 2

  1. overgraze: to allow animals to strip areas so bare that plants cannot grow back.
  2. drought: long period of extreme dryness and water shortages.
  3. desertification: process by which grasslands change to desert.

Section 3

  1. cassava: plant with roots that can be ground into flour to make bread or eaten in other ways.
  2. bauxite: mineral used to make aluminum.
  3. phosphate: mineral salt used in fertilizers.

Chapter 20

Section 1

  1. savanna: broad grassland in the tropics with few trees.
  2. basin: area of land drained by a given river and its branches; area of land surrounded by lands of higher elevations.
  3. canopy: umbrella-like covering formed by the tops of trees in a rain forest.
  4. hydroelectric power: electricity generated by flowing water.
  5. dictator:  individual who take control of a government and rules the country as he or she wishes.
  6. refugee: person who flees to another country to escape persecution or disaster.

Section 2

  1. steppe: partly dry grassland often found on the edges of a desert.
  2. tsetse fly: insect whose bite can kill cattle or humans with a deadly disease called sleeping sickness..
  3. industrialize:  to change an economy to rely more on manufacturing and less on farming.
  4. deforestation: widespread cutting of forests.

Chapter 21

Section 1

  1. coral reef: structure at or near the water's surface formed by the skeletons of small sea animals.
  2. nature preserve: protected areas for plants and animals.
  3. poaching: illegal hunting of protected animlas.
  4. fault: crack in the earth's crust.
  5. escarpment: steep cliff between higher and lower land.
  6. altitude: height above sea level.
  7. free enterprise system: economic system in which people start and run businesses with limited government intervention.
  8. cassava: plant with roots that can be ground into flour to make bread or eaten in other ways.

Section 2

  1. sisal: plant fiber used to make rope and twine.
  2. habitat: type of environment in which a particular animal species lives.
  3. eco-tourist: person who travels to another country to view its natural wonders.

Section 3

  1. plantains: kind of banana.
  2. autonomy: self-government.
  3. watershed: region drained by a river.
  4. endangered species: plant or animal under the threat of completely dying out.
  5. refugee: person who flees to another country to escape persecution or disaster.

Section 4

  1. drought: long period of extreme dryness and water shortages.
  2. plate: huge slab of rock that makes up the earth's crust.
  3. clan: group of people related to one another.

Chapter 22

Section 1

  1. high veld: flat, grass-covered plains on the interior plateau of South Africa.
  2. escarpment: steep cliff between higher and lower land.
  3. developed country: country in which a great deal of manufacturing is carried out.
  4. Boer: name for the Dutch who were the first European settlers in South Africa.
  5. apartheid: system of laws that separated racial and ethnic groups and limited the rights of black in South Africa.
  6. township: crowded neighborhoods outside cities in South Africa where most nonwhites live.
  7. enclave: small territory entirely surrounded by a larger territory.

Section 2

  1. exclave: small part of a country that is separated from the main part.

Section 3

  1. copper belt: large area of copper mines in northern Zambia.
  2. sorghum: tall grass with seeds that are used as grain and to make syrup.

Section 4

  1. cyclone: intense storm system with heavy rain and high winds.
  2. slash-and-burn farming: method of clearing land for planting by cutting and burning forest.
  3. deforestation: widespread cutting of forests.

                                                       

Unit 8

Chapter 23

Section 1

  1. subcontinent: large landmass that is part of another continent but distinct from it.
  2. monsoon: seasonal wind that blows over a continent for months at a time.
  3. jute: plant fiber used for making rope, burlap bags, and carpet backing.
  4. cottage industry: home-or-village-based industry in which family members supply their own equipment to make goods.
  5. pesticide: powerful chemicals that kill crop-destroying insects.
  6. caste: social class based on a person's ancestry.
  7. coalition government: government in which 2 or more political parties work together to run a country.

Section 2

  1. tributary: small river that flows into a larger river.
  2. delta: area formed from soil deposited by a river at its mouth.
  3. cyclone: intense storm system with heavy rain and high winds.

Section 3

  1. dzong: Buddhist center of prayer and study in Bhutan.
  2. atoll: low-lying, ring-shaped island that surrounds a lagoon.
  3. lagoon: shallow pool of water surrounded by reefs, sandbars, or atolls.

Chapter 24

Section 1

  1. loess: fertile, yellow-gray soil deposited by wind and water.
  2. dike: high banks of soil built along rivers to control floods.
  3. fault: crack in the earth's crust.
  4. typhoon: name for hurricane in Asia.

Section 2

  1. communist state: country whose government has strong control over the economy and society as a whole.
  2. invest: to put money into a business.
  3. consumer goods: household products, clothing, and other goods people buy to use for themselves. 
  4. tungsten: metal used in electrical equipment.
  5. terraced field: strips of land cut out of a hillside like stair steps so the land can hold water and be used for farming.

Section 3

  1. dynasty: line of rulers from the same family.
  2. human rights: basic freedoms and rights that all people should enjoy.
  3. exile: inability to live in one's own country because of political beliefs.
  4. calligraphy: art of beautiful writing.
  5. pagoda: Buddhist temple with many-storied towers.

Section 4

  1. high-technology industry: industry that produces computers and other kinds of electronic equipment.
  2. steppe: partly dry grassland often found on the edges of a desert.
  3. nomad: people who move from place to place with herds of animals.
  4. empire: group of lands under one ruler.
  5. yurt: large circle-shaped tent made of animal skins that can be packed up and moved from place to place.

Chapter 25

Section 1

  1. tsunami: huge sea wave caused by an earthquake on the ocean floor.
  2. archipelago: group of islands.
  3. intensive cultivation
  4. clan: group of people related to one another.
  5. shogun: military leaders in Japan.
  6. samurai: powerful land-owning warriors in Japan.
  7. constitutional monarchy: government in which a king or queen is the official head of state, but elected officials run the government.
  8. megalopolis: pattern of heavy urban settlement over  a large area.

Section 2

  1. dynasty: line of rulers from the same family.
  2. monsoon: seasonal wind that blows over a continent for months at a time.
  3. anthracite: type of hard coal.
  4. famine: lack of food.

Chapter 26

Section 1

  1. monsoon: seasonal wind that blows over a continent for months at a time.
  2. deforestation: widespread cutting of forests.
  3. socialism: economic system in which many businesses are owned and run by the government.
  4. delta: area formed from soil deposited by a river at its mouth.

Section 2

  1. strait: narrow body of water between 2 pieces of land.
  2. free port: place where goods can be loaded, sorted, and shipped again without needing to pay any import taxes.
  3. terraced field: strips of land cut out of a hillside like stair steps so the land can hold water and be used for farming.

Section 3

  1. plate: huge slab of rock that makes up the earth's crust.
  2. civil war: fight among different groups within a country.
  3. dictatorship: government under the control of one all-powerful leader.

                                                       

Unit 9

Chapter 27

Section 1

  1. coral reef: structure at or near the water's surface formed by the skeletons of small sea animals.
  2. outback: inland regions of Australia.
  3. station: cattle or sheep ranch in Australia.
  4. marsupial: mammal that carries its young in a pouch.
  5. immigrant: person who moves to a new country to make a permanent home.
  6. boomerang: Australian weapon shaped like a bent wing that either strikes a target or  curves and sails back to land on the ground.
  7. bush: rural areas of Australia.

Section 2

  1. geyser: spring of water heated by molten rock inside the earth so that, from time to time, it shoots hot water into the air.
  2. manuka: small shrub of New Zealand.
  3. fjord: steep-sided valley cut into mountains by the action of glaciers.
  4. geothermal energy: electricity produced by natural underground sources of steam.
  5. hydroelectric power: electricity generated by flowing water.

Chapter 28

Section 1

  1. continental island: island formed when chunks of land are split off from larger continents or when a piece of land that once linked an island to the mainland is eroded or covered by water.
  2. cacao: tropical tree whose seeds are used to make chocolate and cocoa.
  3. copra: dried coconut meat, which is used to make margarine, soap, and other products.
  4. pidgin language: language formed by combining elements of several different languages.
  5. high island: Pacific island formed by volcanic activity.
  6. low island: Pacific island formed of coral and having little vegetation.
  7. atoll: low-lying, ring-shaped island that surrounds a lagoon.
  8. typhoon: name for hurricane in Asia.
  9. phosphate: mineral salt used in fertilizers.
  10. trust territory: area temporarily placed under control of another nation.

Section 2

  1. crevasse: deep crack in the Antarctic ice cap.
  2. ice shelf: layer of ice above water in Antarctica.
  3. iceberg: chunk of a glacier that has broken away and floats free in the ocean.
  4. krill: tiny, shrimp like animal that lives in the waters off Antarctica and is the food for many other creatures.
  5. ozone: type of oxygen that forms a layer in the atmosphere and protects all living things on the earth from certain harmful rays of the sun.