5th grade Social Studies answers

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Geography skills

Part 1

  1. continent: one of Earth's seven large bodies of land: Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America.
  2. ocean: one of Earth's four large bodies of salt water; Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific.
  3. hemisphere: one half of a sphere or globe; 4 hemispheres--Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western.
  4. equator: an imaginary line encircling Earth half way between the North and South Pole; 0 degrees latitude.
  5. latitude: an imaginary line or parallel, measuring the distance north or south or the equator.
  6. parallel: a line of latitude.
  7. longitude: an imaginary line, or meridian, measuring the distance east or west of the prime meridian.
  8. meridian: any line of longitude east or west of prime meridian.
  9. prime meridian: the line of longitude label 0 degrees; any place east of here is labeled E, and any place west is labeled W.

Part 2

  1. cardinal directions: one of the 4 main points on a compass: north, south, east, west.
  2. intermediate directions: a direction halfway between 2 cardinal directions: northeast, southeast, northwest, southwest.
  3. compass rose: a drawing that indicates directions on a map.
  4. scale: a guide that explains the relationship between real distances on Earth and distances on a map.
  5. symbol: something that stands for something else.
  6. map key: a guide telling you what each symbol on a map stands for.
  7. locator: a small map inset in the corner of a larger map that helps you understand where the subject area of the larger map is located on Earth.

Part 3

  1. political map: a map that shows the boundaries of states and countries.
  2. physical map: a map that highlights Earth's natural resources.
  3. relief map: a physical map that uses shading to show the difference in height between areas of land.
  4. elevation map: a physical map that uses colors to show the elevation, or height, of land above sea level.
  5. road map: a map that indicates cities, highways, and points of interest and shows you how to get from one place to another.
  6. historical map: a map that shows information about the past or where past events took place.


Unit 1

Chapter 1

Lesson 1

  1. culture: the entire way of life of a people, including their customs, beliefs, and language.
  2. diversity: variety; differences.
  3. unity: being as one or in an agreement.
  4. values: the beliefs or ideals that guide the way people live.
  5. immigrant: a person who leaves one country to live in another.
  6. ancestor: a relative who lived before you.
  7. ethnic group: people who share the same customs and language, often having a common history.
  8. census: an official count of all the people living in a country or region.
  9. population: the total number of people living in a particular area or place.
  10. prejudice: a negative opinion formed without proof.

Lesson 2

  1. Constitution: a plan of government; supreme law and plan of the national government adopted in 1789.
  2. democracy: a form of government in which the people make the laws and run the government.
  3. republic: a form of government in which the people elect representatives to run the country.
  4. federal: the word describing the central, or national government.
  5. citizen: a person born in a country or who chooses to become a member of that country by law.
  6. civil rights: the individual rights of all citizens to be treated equally under the law.

Lesson 3

  1. history: the study or record of what happened in the past.
  2. historian: a person who studies the past.
  3. primary source: a firsthand account of an event or an artifact created during the period of history that is being studied.
  4. oral history: spoken records, including stories that have been passed down  from one generation to the next.
  5.  secondary source: an account of the past based on information from primary sources and written by someone who was not an eyewitness to those events.
  6. perspective: point of view.

Chapter 2

Lesson 1

  1. geography: the study of Earth and the way people live in it and use it.
  2. region: a large area with common features that set it apart from other areas.
  3. landform: a shape on Earth's surface, such as a mountain or a hill.
  4. megalopolis: a group of cities that have grown so close together that they seem to form one city.
  5. interdependent: depending on each other to meet needs and wants.

Lesson 2

  1. climate: the weather of an area over a number of years.
  2. temperature: the measurement of heat and cold.
  3. precipitation: the moisture that falls to Earth as rain or snow.
  4. arid: dry.
  5. humid: wet; moist.

Lesson 3

  1. natural resource: a material found in nature that people use to meet their needs and wants.
  2. nonrenewable resource: a material found in nature that cannot be replaced, such as coal, oil, and natural gas.
  3. renewable resource: a material found in nature that can be replaced, such as forests.
  4. mineral: a substance found in the earth that is neither plant nor animal.
  5. fossil fuel: a fuel, such as oil, natural gas, and coal, that is formed from the remains of plants and animals that live millions of years ago.
  6. environment: all the surroundings in which people, plants, and animals live.
  7. economy: the way a country's people use natural resources, money, and knowledge to produce goods and services.
  8. pollution: anything that dirties the air, soil, or water.
  9. acid rain: precipitation containing harmful chemical pollution that can destroy trees and wildlife and poison water.
  10. conservation: the protection and careful use of natural resources.
  11. recycle: to save discarded items, like cans, or bottles, so that they can be used again.


Unit 2

Chapter 3

Lesson 1

  1. civilization: a culture that has developed complex systems of government, education, and religion.; have large populations with many people living in cities.
  2. surplus: an amount greater than what is needed.
  3. specialize: to spend most of ones' time doing one kind of job.
  4. archaeologist: a scientist who looks for and studies artifacts.

Lesson 2

  1. empire: a large area in which different groups of people are controlled by one ruler or government.
  2. tribute: forced payment, usually made in the form of valuable goods.
  3. slavery: the practice of people owing other people and forcing them to work.

Lesson 3

  1. artifact: an object left behind by people who live long ago.

  2. drought: a long period with very little rain.

  3. irrigation: a method of supplying dry land with water through a series of ditches or pipes.

Chapter 4

Lesson 1

  1. technology: the design an use of tools, ideas, and methods to solve problems.

  2. totem pole: a tall carved log used by Native Americans of the Northwest Coast to honor an important person or to mark a special event.

  3. potlatch: a special feast given by Native Americans of the Northwest Coast, in which the guests receive gifts.

Lesson 2

  1. pueblo: a Spanish word meaning "village" used to refer to the apartment-style  homes of the  Native Americans of the Southwest.

  2. adobe: a type of clay traditionally used as a building material by  Native Americans and later Spanish colonists in the Southwest.

  3. kachina: in Pueblo religion, the living spirit of an ancestor who helps bring rains and make crops grow.

Lesson 3

  1. lodge: a type of home made of logs, grasses, sticks, and soil which the Native Americans of the  Plains used when living in their villages.

  2. prairie: flat or gently rolling land covered mostly with grasses and wildflowers.

  3. teepee: a cone-shaped tent made of animal skins used by Native Americans of the Plains.

  4. travois: a sled-like device constructed by Native Americans of the Plains.

  5. coup stick: a special weapon used by a Lakota Sioux soldier to show his bravery by touching, but not killing, his enemy.

  6. jerky: this strips of sun-dried meat.

Lesson 4

  1. longhouse: a home shared by several related Iroquois families.

  2. wampum: polished beads used in gift-giving and trading by the Iroquois and other Native Americans.

  3. clan: a group of families who share the same ancestors.

  4. Iroquois Confederacy: the union of the 5 major Iroquois peoples beginning about 1570.

  5. compromise: the settling of a dispute by each side agreeing to give up part of its demands.

Chapter 5

Lesson 1

  1. magnetic compass: an instrument invented by the Chinese about AD. 100 to help sailors find north and south.

Lesson 2

  1. caravan: a group of people traveling together for safety, especially through desert areas.

  2. malaria: a disease caused by the bite of a certain mosquito.

Lesson 3

  1. Renaissance: a period of cultural and artistic growth in Europe that began in Italy in the 1300's.

  2. navigation: the science of determining a ship's location and direction.

  3. caravel: a fast sailing ship that could be steered easily and hold large amount of cargo.


Unit 3

Chapter 6

Lesson 1

  1. expedition: a journey made for a special purpose.

  2. colony: a settlement far away from the country that rules it.

  3. Columbian exchange: the movement of people, plants, animals, and germs in either direction across the Atlantic Ocean following the voyages of Columbus.

Lesson 2

  1. conquistador: a name for the Spanish conquerors who first came to the Americas in the 1500's.

Lesson 3

  1. encomienda: a very large piece of land in New Spain given by the Spanish government to certain Spanish colonists during the 1500's.

  2. missionary: a person who teaches his or her religion to others who have different beliefs.

Chapter 7

Lesson 1

  1. charter: an official document giving a person permission to do something, such as settle in an area.

  2. armada: a large fleet of ships, especially warships.

Lesson 2

  1. Northwest Passage: a water route believed to flow through North America to Asia that European explores searched for from the 1500's to the 1700's.

  2. profit: the money remaining after the costs of a business have been paid for.

Lesson 3

  1. stock: shares of ownership in a company.

  2. cash crop: a crop that is grown to be sold for profit.

  3. indentured servant: a person who agreed to work for someone in colonial America for a fixed amount of time in order to pay for the ocean voyage.

  4. House of Burgesses: the law-making body of colonial Virginia, established in Jamestown in 1619.

Lesson 4

  1. Mayflower Compact: an agreement the Pilgrims made before landing in New England to make and obey "just and equal laws".

  2. sachem: the leader or chief of nay group of Native Americans in the Eastern Woodland and Great Lakes regions.


Unit 4

Chapter 8

Lesson 1

  1. covenant: a special agreement; in colonial New England, a contract signed by each free man that bound his family to live by Puritan rules.

  2. tolerate: allowing people to have different beliefs from your own.

Lesson 2

  1. Conestoga: a study wagon used by colonists and pioneers to carry people and goods.

Lesson 3

  1. proprietor: a person who owns a property or a business.

  2. debtor: a person who owes money.

  3. indigo: a plant that is used to produce a blue dye.

Chapter 9

Lesson 1

  1. autobiography: the story of a person's own life written by himself or herself.

  2. slave trade: the business of buying and selling people for profit.

Lesson 2

  1. export: to send goods to other countries for sale or use.

  2. import: to bring goods from another country for sale or use.

  3. agriculture: the business of farming.

  4. free enterprise: an economic system in which people can own property and businesses and are free to decide what to make, how much to produce, and what price to charge.

  5. industry: all the businesses that make one kind of product or provide one kind of service.

  6. triangular trade: the three-sided trade route between Africa, the West Indies, and colonial New England which involved the slave trade as well as the trading of goods.

  7. Middle Passage: the middle leg of the triangular trade route in colonial times in which captive Africans were shipped to the West Indies to be sold into slavery.

Lesson 3

  1. plantation: a large farm that often grows one crop.

  2. slave codes: rules made by colonial planters that controlled the lives of enslaved Africans.

  3. overseer: a person hired to e the boss of a plantation.

Lesson 4

  1. frontier: a word used by colonists and pioneers to describe land on the edge of their settlements.

  2. almanac: a reference book containing facts and figures.

  3. backcountry: in colonial times, the name given to the eastern foothills of the Appalachian Mountains.

Chapter 10

Lesson 1

  1. mission: a settlement where missionaries lived and worked.

Lesson 2

  1. portage: a land route from one body of water to another.

  2. voyageur: a trader who transports furs by canoe in New France.

  3. coureur de bois: in New France, a person who trapped furs without permission from the French government.

Lesson 3

  1. French and Indian War: a conflict between Great Britain and France in North America from 1756 to 1763; British colonists used this name to describe those they were fighting--the French and Native American allies.

  2. Treaty of Paris: an agreement signed by Great Britain and France that brought an end to the French and Indian War.

  3. Proclamation of 1763: an official announcement by King George III of Great Britain outlawing colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains.


Unit 5

Chapter 11

Lesson 1

  1. assembly: a lawmaking body. 

  2. town meeting: gathering of a town's citizens to discuss and solve local problems.

  3. militia: a group of volunteers who fought in times of emergency during the colonial period and the American Revolution.

  4. delegate: a member of an elected assembly

Lesson 2

  1. liberty: freedom.

  2. rebel: to oppose those in charge, even to the point of fighting them with weapons, because of different ideas about what is right.

  3. Stamp Act: a law passed by the British Parliament in 1765 requiring colonists to pay a tax on newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents, and even playing cards.

  4. treason: the betrayal of one's country by giving help to an enemy.

  5. Sons of Liberty: groups of colonists who organized themselves to protest against the British government.

  6. repeal: to withdraw or cancel.

  7. Townshend Acts: taxes passed by Parliament in 1767 for goods brought into the colonies.

  8. boycott: to refuse to do business or have contact with a person, group, country, or product.

  9. Committees of  Correspondence: groups organized in the 1770s to keep colonists informed of important events.

  10. Boston Tea Party: a 1773 protest against British taxes in which Boston colonists disguised as Mohawks dumped valuable tea into Boston Harbor.

  11. Intolerable Acts: the laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 that closed Boston Harbor, dissolved the Massachusetts assembly, and forced Boston colonists to house British soldiers.

Lesson 3

  1. First Continental Congress: the assembly of colonial delegates from every colony except Georgia that met in 1774 in Philadelphia to oppose the Intolerable Acts.

  2. petition: a written request signed by many people.

  3. minutemen: well-trained volunteer soldiers who defended the American colonies against the British at a minute's notice.

  4. American Revolution: the war between Great Britain and its thirteen American colonies from 1775 to 1783 that led to the founding of the USA.

  5. Battle of Bunker Hill: costly British "victory" in 1775 over Colonial forces at a site near Charlestown, Massachusetts.

Chapter 12

Lesson 1

  1. Second Continental Congress: a meeting in Philadelphia in 1775 of delegates from all 13 colonies which established a colonial army and declared American Independence.

  2. Continental Army: the army created by the Second Continental Congress in May 1775 with George Washington as commander-in-chief.

  3. traitor: someone who turns against his or her country.

  4. Declaration of Independence: the official document issued by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, explaining why the American colonies were breaking away from Great Britain.

Lesson 2

  1. mercenary: a soldier paid to fight for another country.

  2. Loyalist: a colonist who supported Great Britain in the American Revolution.

  3. Patriot: an American colonist who supported the fight for independence.

Lesson 3

  1. Treaty of Paris of 1783: the peace treaty in which great Britain recognized the United States as an independent country. 

Chapter 13

Lesson 1

  1. Articles of Confederation: the first plan of government of the United States; in effect from 1781 to 1789, it gave more power to the states than the central government.

  2. Shay's Rebellion: a revolt in 1786 of Massachusetts farmers, led by Daniel Shays, who opposed tax decision of the state courts.

  3. Northwest Ordinance: a law passed by Congress in 1787 organizing the Northwest Territory for settlement and eventual statehood.

  4. territory: an area of land that belongs to a government.

  5. statehood: becoming a state in the United States.

Lesson 2

  1. Constitutional Convention: the meeting of twelve states' delegates in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, that replaced the Articles of Confederation with a new Constitution.

  2. Virginia Plan: the plan drawn up by James Madison and adopted by the Constitutionals Convention in 1787, that established three branches of the federal government.

  3. legislative branch: the law-making part of government, with the power toraise the money needed to run the government.

  4. executive branch: the part of government, headed by the President, that carries out the laws.

  5. judicial branch: the part of government that decides the meaning of the laws.

  6. Supreme Court: the head of the judicial branch of the federal government; highest court in the country.

  7. New Jersey Plan: the plan offered by the small states at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that would have given all states and equal number of representatives in Congress.

  8. Great Compromise: the plan drawn up by roger Sherman at the Constitutional Convention in 1787; proposed the establishment of 2 houses of Congress.

  9. House of Representatives: the house of Congress in which each state's number of representatives is determined according to its population.

  10. Senate: the house of Congress in which each state has an equal number of representatives, or Senators, regardless of population.

Lesson 3

  1. amendment: an addition to the Constitution.

  2. Preamble: the introduction to the Constitution.

  3. federal system: a system of government in which power is shared between the central government and the state governments--US has this type.

  4. checks and balances: the system in which the power of each branch of government is balanced by the powers of the others branches.

  5. veto: to refuse to approve.

Lesson 4

  1. ratify: to give official approval; to the Constitution or amendments.

  2. Federalist: a supporter of a strong federal system of government in the late 1700's.

  3. Anitfederalist: an opponent of a strong central government in the late 1700's.

  4. Bill of Rights: the first ten amendments to the Constitution, ratified in 1791.

  5. secretary: the head of each department in the executive branch of government; as a group they are called the President's Cabinet.

  6. Cabinet: the officials appointed by the President to be advisers and to head each department in the executive branch.

  7. political party: a group of people who share similar ideas about government.


Unit 6

Chapter 14

Lesson 1

  1. pioneer: a person who leads the way, usually to make a new home and become a settler there.

Lesson 2

  1. Louisiana Purchase: the territory purchased by the United States from France in 180, reaching from the Mississippi River tot the Rocky Mountains and from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada.

Lesson 3

  1. neutral: not taking sides.

  2. War Hawks: Members of Congress from the South the and the West in the early 1800's who wanted the United States to go to war against Great Britain.

  3. War of 1812: war between Great Britain and the United States from 1812-1815.

  4. national anthem: a country's official song, such as "The Star-Spangled Banner".

  5. Battle of New Orleans: a United States victory over British forces in the last battle of the War of 1812.

  6. Era of Good Feelings: the name given to the period of peace and prosperity that followed the War of 1812.

  7. Monroe Doctrine: a declaration of United States foreign policy made by President James Monroe in 1823 that opposed European colonization or interference in the Western Hemisphere.

Lesson 4

  1. Indian Removal Act: a law passed by Congress in 1830 forcing Native Americans of the Southeast to move to what is now Oklahoma.

  2. Trail of Tears: the name given to the 800-mile forced march of 15,000 Cherokee in 1838 from their homes in Georgia to the Indian Territory.

Chapter 15

Lesson 1

  1. Industrial Revolution: the dramatic changed from making goods by hand at home to making them by machine in factories.

  2. cotton gin: a machine that separates cotton from its seeds, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793.

  3. interchangeable parts: parts of a product built to a standard size so that hey can be easily replaced.

  4. reaper: a machine that used sharp blades to harvest grain.

Lesson 2

  1. stagecoach: a large, horse-drawn carriage in the 1800's that transported passengers, baggage, and mail on a regular schedule.

  2. steam engine: an engine powered by the energy produced from steam.

  3. canal: a human-built waterway.

  4. investor: a person who uses money to buy or make something in order to produce a profit.

  5. lock: a kind of water elevator that moves boats within a canal to higher or lower levels.

Lesson 4

  1. Mexican War: a war between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848.

  2. Battle of Buena Vista: the battle during the Mexican War in which heavily outnumbered Unite States forces led by General Zachary Taylor defeated Santa Anna's army in 1847.

  3. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: the treaty signed in 1848 that ended the Mexican War.

Lesson 5

  1. gold rush: the sudden rush of people to an area where gold has been discovered, as in California in 1849.

  2. Forty-Niners: people who came to California in 1849 in search of gold.


Unit 7

Chapter 16

Lesson 2

  1. abolitionist: a person who wanted to end slavery in the United States.

  2. Underground Railroad: a system of secret routes used by escaping slave to reach freedom in the North or in Canada.

  3. Seneca Falls Convention: the country's first women's rights meeting, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848.

Lesson 3

  1. Missouri Compromise: a law passed by Congress in 1820 that divided the Louisiana Territory into areas allowing slavery and areas outlawing slavery.

  2. Fugitive Slave Law of 1850: a law passed by Congress that required police in free states to help capture escaping slaves.

  3. Compromise of 1850: a law passed by Congress admitting California to the Union; allowing people in the territories to decide slavery for themselves, and obtaining the North's agreement to obey the Fugitive Slave Law.

  4. Kansas-Nebraska Act: an 1854 law passed by Congress that allowed the Kansas and Nebraska territories to decide whether to become free states or slave states.

  5. Dred Scott Decision: an 1857 Supreme Court decision that said slaves were private property.

  6. states' rights: the belief that each state should be allowed t make its own decisions about issues affecting it.

  7. secede: to break away from a group, such as the Southern states seceding from the Union in 1861.

  8. Confederate States of America: the name adopted by the 11 Southern states that seceded from the Union during the Civil War.

Chapter 17

Lesson 1

  1. Civil War: in the United States, the war between the Union (North) and Confederacy (South) from 1861 to 1865.

  2. Anaconda Plan: the Union's three-part plan for defeating the Confederacy in the Civil War.

  3. blockade: the closing of an area, especially during wartime, to keep people or supplies from moving in or out.

Lesson 2

  1. Emancipation Proclamation: an official announcement issued by President Abraham Lincoln in 1862 that led to the end of slavery in the United States. 

  2. Gettysburg Address: the speech made by President Lincoln at the site of the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863, explaining the purpose of the Civil War.

Lesson 3

  1. total war: al all-out war to destroy people's ability and will to fight.

Lesson 4

  1. Reconstruction: the period following the Civil War in which Congress passed laws designed to rebuild the country and bring the Southern states back into the Union.

  2. Thirteenth Amendment: an amendment to the Constitution, ratified in 1865, that abolished slavery.

  3. black codes: laws passed by the Southern states after the Civil War that severely limited the rights of the newly freed African Americans.

  4. Freedmen's Bureau: a government agency created in 1865 that provided food, schools, and medical care for freed slaves and others in the South.

  5. sharecropping: a system common in the South in the late 1800's and early 1900's in which farmers rented land fro a landowner by promising to pay the owner with a share of heir crop.

  6. Fourteenth Amendment: an amendment to the Constitution, ratified in 1868, that officially established blacks as citizens with the same legal rights as whites.

  7. Fifteenth Amendment: an amendment to the Constitution, ratified in 1870, that made it illegal to withhold voting rights "on account of race or color".

  8. impeach: to charge a government official with wrongdoing. 

  9. Ku Klux Klan: a secret society formed by white Southerners to terrorize blacks following the Civil War.

  10. Jim Crow laws: laws passed by Southern states after Reconstruction that established segregation, or separation of the races.

  11. segregation: the separation of people, usually based on race or religion.


Unit 8

Chapter 18

Lesson 1

  1. transcontinental railroad: a railroad that crosses an entire continent.

  2. Pacific Railroad Act: a law passed by Congress in 1862 offering government loans and free land to the two companies building the transcontinental railroad.

Lesson 2

  1. cattle drive: a long journey in which cowboys brought cattle from the ranch to the railroad, from about the 1860's to 1880's.

  2. railhead: any town where a railroad begins or ends, especially on the Great Plains in the late 1800's.

Lesson 3

  1. Homestead Act: a law that gave free farmland to any adult male or widow who agreed to work it for 5 years.
  2. homesteader: a person who claimed land on the Great Plains under the Homestead Act of 1862.
  3. sodbuster: a settler on the Great Plains in the late 1800's who had to "bust" through the thick sod to plant crops.
  4. exoduster: the term describing one of the many African Americans from the South who went to Kansas in the  1860's.

Lesson 4

  1. property rights: the rights to own or use something.
  2. reservation: an area ser aside for Native Americans.

Chapter 19

Lesson 1

  1. monopoly: a company that controls an entire industry.
  2. corporation: a business that is owned by individuals who invest in that company.
  3. shareholder: a person who buys stock, or shares, in a corporation.
  4. sweatshop: a small, crowded factory where people work in unsafe conditions.
  5. labor union: a group of workers united to gain better wages and working conditions.
  6. strike: a refusal of all the workers in a business to work until the owners meet their demands.

Lesson 2

  1. slum: a poor, crowded section of a city with rundown and often unsafe housing.
  2. tenement: an apartment building divided into many small, cramped apartments. 
  3. Great Chicago Fire: a fire in 1871 that destroyed a third of the city in 24 hours.
  4. settlement house: in the late 1800's and early 1900's, a community center for the poor, immigrants, and others in need of child care, education, and so on.

Lesson 3

  1. Spanish-American War: the war between the United States and Spain in 1898 in which the United States gained control of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.

Lesson 4

  1. reform: a change to make government or business work better.
  2. assembly line: a method of mass production in which the product is carried on a moving belt past workers who remain in place.
  3. Model T: Henry Ford's famous automobile of the early 1900's; first to be built using assembly-line mass production.
  4. national park: an area set aside by the national government for the public to enjoy.


Unit 9

Chapter 20

Lesson 1

  1. World War I: a war that began in Europe in 1914 between the Central Powers and the Allied Powers, who were joined by the United States in 1917.
  2. Allied Powers: the name given to  the forces led by Great Britain, France, and Russia during World War I; US joined the Allied Forces in 1917.
  3. Central Powers: the forces led by Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey in World War I.
  4. Treaty of Versailles: the peace treaty that the Allied Powers forced Germany to sign, in 1919, officially ending World War I.
  5. League of Nations: an international organization set up after World War I to prevent future wars. 
  6. Great Migration: the journey of hundreds of thousands of African Americans from the South to such southern manufacturing cities as Chicago that peaked in the early 1900's.
  7. discrimination: an unfair difference in the treatment of people.
  8. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP): an organization, founded in 1909 by both blacks and whites, whose goal is to fight prejudice and discrimination.

Lesson 2

  1. Roaring Twenties: the decade of the 1920's which got this nickname because of the time's prosperity and excitement.
  2. jazz: the form of popular music that grew out of African American culture in the 1920's.
  3. media: a word used to describe the methods of communication that reach a large number of people, including radio, newspapers, televisions, magazines, and computer networks.
  4. suffrage: the right to vote.
  5. Nineteenth Amendment: an amendment to the Constitution, ratified in 1920, that gave women the right to vote.
  6. League of Women Voters: a volunteer organization founded in 1920 to inform people about politics.

Lesson 3

  1. stock exchange: a special market where shares of stocks are bought and sold.
  2. Great Depression: the period of widespread economic hardship in the 1930's.
  3. New Deal: governments programs started by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the  1930's to aid businesses, farms, and the unemployed to recover from the Great Depression.
  4. unemployment: the number of workers without jobs.
  5. hydroelectricity: electricity generated by the force of running water.

Lesson 4

  1. dictator: a leader with complete authority over the government. 
  2. Axis: the name given to the countries that fought the Allies in WWII, including Germany, Italy, and Japan.
  3. Allies: the name given to the countries allied against the Axis Power in WWII, including the United States, Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and China.
  4. World War II: war between the Axis and teh Allies that involved most of the ocuntries of the world; fought from 1939 to 1945; US joined Allies on Dec. 8, 1941.
  5. communism: a system in which the government owns all property and makes nearly all decisions for its citizens.
  6. relocation camp: prison camps in which Japanese Americans were held in the western US during WWII.
  7. concentration camp: a type of prison in which the Nazis enslvaed and murdered millions of people during WWII.
  8. Holocaust: the murder of 6 million Jews by Nazi Germany during WWII.
  9. atomic bomb: a bomb which produces massive amounts of energy by splitting atoms.

Lesson 5

  1. Cold War: the conflict from 1945 to 1991 between the United States and the Soviet Union, involving ideas, words, money, and weapons.
  2. Iron Curtain: the imaginary borders dividing Europe into communist and noncommunist countries from 1948 to 1991.
  3. United Nations: an international organization, founded in 1945 following WWII, which works to preserve world peace.
  4. arms race: a race to build the most powerful weapons.

Chapter 21

Lesson 2

  1. Cuban Missile Crisis: a confrontation in 1962 between the United States and the Soviet Union over nuclear missiles in Cuba.
  2. Vietnam War: a war between South Vietnam and North Vietnam that lasted from 1954 to 1975, when North Vietnam defeated South Vietnam and reunited the two Vietnams.

Lesson 3

  1. Watergate Scandal: political scandal in which people working for President Nixon were arrested for spying on his political opponent.
  2. Persian Gulf War: a war in 1991 in which international armed forces led b the United States drove Iraqi forces from Kuwait.

Lesson 4

  1. space race: the competition between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War to explore outer space.
  2. satellite: an object that circles a larger object, such as the moon around Earth.
  3. Internet: a computer network that connects various sources of information such as libraries to a person's home or office computer.